Les premiers sports d’hiver

Font-Romeu est l’une des toutes premières stations de sports d’hiver créées en France.

Un bref rappel du contexte :

La saison touristique d’hiver en montagne apparaît en Suisse, à Davos et Saint-Moritz, vers 1865. Pour occuper les visiteurs, des loisirs hivernaux sont proposés, initiant ce qui sera progressivement regroupé sous le vocable de sports d’hiver (patinage, luge, skeleton, bobsleigh, hockey sur glace, ski nordique). Cette saison hivernale gagne lentement la Suisse occidentale puis au début du xxe siècle la France, dans les Alpes (Chamonix et Aix-Mont-Revard), les Pyrénées (Cauterets, Eaux-Bonnes, Luchon), le Massif-Central (Mont-Dore) et les Vosges (Gérardmer).

— de Bellefon, Renaud, et Steve Hagimont. « De la montagne paysanne à la montagne sportive et professionnelle. Des Pyrénées aux Alpes, fin XIXe siècle-années 1960 », (Ensa, PU Grenoble, 2015, p. 291)

Des sports pratiqués aux débuts de la station, le ski nous semblera sans doute le plus familier du fait sa pratique qui, jusqu’à nous jours, n’a cessé de s’étendre à toutes les couches de la population. D’autres, à présent méconnu ou oublié, ont connu avant-guerre une histoire glorieuse. C’est le cas du bobsleigh, qui bénéficiait alors d’une forte considération, grâce à l’excellence des équipages français. D’autres encore, comme le skeleton ou le gymkhana paraissent aujourd’hui insolites. On sera également peut-être surpris de voir que l’automobile a joué un rôle non négligeable dans l’essor des sports d’hiver.

Le ski

Si le ski est devenu l’activité emblématique des sports d’hiver, sa pratique dans les années de l’entre-deux-guerres diffère beaucoup de celle que nous connaissons aujourd’hui.

La clientèle du Grand Hôtel a ainsi la possibilité de faire des excursions à ski, soit à proximité immédiate de l’hôtel, soit un peu plus haut, vers l’Ermitage. À cette fin, on utilise un traîneau tracté par une « auto-car », après avoir dégagé la route avec un « tank-chasse neige ». En l’absence de remonte-pente, la montée s’effectue à ski.

La technique du skieur est alors assez intuitive. Il s’agit surtout d’éviter les arbres et autres obstacles pour s’arrêter tant bien que mal au bas de la pente, le plus souvent en se laissant tomber !

Le Monde illustré, 8/1/21, p. 24-25

Pour améliorer la technique des skieurs novices, l’hôtel met à la disposition de ses clients des moniteurs venus de Suisse ou d’Autriche, qui font figure de pionniers de la discipline. Sur ce point, Font-Romeu adopte la même politique que dans les stations des Alpes :

[…] le rôle des professeurs étrangers est longtemps prépondérant. […] dans les plus grandes stations, comme Chamonix, Megève, Superbagnères ou Font-Romeu ce sont des Norvégiens, des Autrichiens, des Suisses ou des Italiens qui servent comme professeurs et moniteurs de ski, grâce à leur réputation qui sied à ces stations huppées, que ce soit pour le ski nordique ou le ski alpin (avec la méthode générique de l’Arlberg).

de Bellefon, Renaud, et Steve Hagimont, id., p. 292

 Certains de ces professeurs de ski, comme Rudolph Alb, venu d’Autriche, choisiront de s’installer dans la station.

Un film de quelques minutes tournée en 1930 et conservé à la Filmoteca de Catalunya montre un groupe de skieurs (hommes et femmes) plus expérimentés, appartenant sans doute à un club de Cerdagne, montant à travers une forêt avant de s’élancer sur les pentes. :

https://www.memoirefilmiquedusud.eu/idurl/1/1803

Les amateurs de randonnées en forêt peuvent aussi faire du ski-attelé, ancêtre du ski-joëring.

Le Monde illustré, 8/1/21, p. 24-25

Quant à la tenue des skieurs, elle se compose d’un pantalon et de longues chaussettes, ainsi que des souliers ferrés que l’on attache aux skis au moyen de sangles. Cette page extraite d’un catalogue d’une firme parisienne en donne un aperçu :

Vous pouvez tous faire comme nous… [catalogue sports d’hiver 1931] : [catalogue commercial]
Tunmer (Firme) (1931) Source : Isidore

Sur la patinoire

Par ailleurs, le Grand Hôtel de Font-Romeu dispose d’une grande patinoire extérieure où amateurs et professionnels évoluent de jour comme de nuit, et qui sert de cadre à des démonstrations, des concours et des galas.

On y pratique aussi le patinage de vitesse, le hockey, le curling et le gymkhana (course d’obstacles chronométrée au parcours compliqué).

Le Monde illustré, 8/1/21, p. 24-25

800 mètres de glisse !

Une piste de 800 mètres aménagée à proximité du palace permet également aux premiers hivernants de s’initier aux joies de la luge et du bobsleigh jour et nuit.

Ces loisirs se développent notamment à travers l’organisation de concours de niveau national ou par le biais de démonstrations par des équipes venues de Suisse ou de Norvège.

Photo course de bob de l’agence Meurisse datant de 1922

Les pistes de luge et de bobsleig (désigné par le diminutif bob, tandis que ses adeptes sont appelés les « bobbeurs ») ont été constamment améliorées jusqu’en 1926.

A cette date, la piste de bob, l’une des plus rapides de France, mesurait 1 360 mètres de long, tandis que celle de luge atteignait une longueur de 1 100 mètres. Cette réalisation offrit la possibilité aux sportifs d’accéder au champ de ski de « La Calma ».

Sports de neige et de glace, 8/1/24, p. 117

Cependant, la luge n’est pas que l’affaire des champions, comme on peut le voir sur ce petit film de quarante secondes, conservé à l’Institut Jean Vigo, qui montre une famille d’hivernants dans la station à la fin des années 20-début des années 30 :

https://www.memoirefilmiquedusud.eu/idurl/1/1648

Plus surprenant….

Certains seront peut-être surpris d’apprendre que la conduite sur neige compte déjà parmi les pratiques sportives hivernales. De très beaux clichés de l’Agence Meurisse, réalisés en 1922, témoignent de cet engouement pour la modernité :

Les voitures équipées de chenilles et de patins amènent les touristes sur « les champs de sport ». Agence Meurisse – 1922. Source : BnF

Mais de quoi s’agissait-il au juste ?

Un coup d’œil à la presse de février-mars 1922 nous informe de l’organisation d’un concours de « voitures à neige » organisé en février par l’Automobile-Club de France, avec le concours du Touring Club de France et du Club Alpin Français. La première partie se déroulait sur trois journées dans les Alpes et la seconde, dans les Pyrénées, sur trois journées également, de Vernet à Quillan, en passant par Font-Romeu.

L’objectif était de démontrer que ces voitures, des Citroën équipées de chenilles en caoutchouc, de patins et du système de propulsion mis au point par l’ingénieur Kergresse (aussi appelé propulseur Kergresse-Hilstin), pouvaient être un précieux adjuvant au tourisme et aux sports d’hiver en venant à bout des routes non-déneigées.

Rappelons en effet que le Font-Romeu est une station construite, promue et exploitée par une société privée (la CHM). L’État n’intervient pas directement et l’accès ne se fait pas par la route, mais par le chemin de fer. Ce concours de voitures à neige revêt donc d’une importance cruciale pour la pérennité de l’activité touristique hivernale.

Un témoignage nous permet de mieux visualiser cette expérience :

Ayant pris place dans une Citroën 10 HP (autrement dit, le premier modèle conçu par André Citroën, lancé en 1919) en compagnie d’Emmanuel Brousse et du délégué du ministère de la guerre, le commandant d’état-major Bourgoin, Jean Paul, le dirigeant de la Société des chemins de fer et hôtels de Montagne aux Pyrénées (ou CHM, filiale de la Compagnie des chemins de fer du Midi) livre ses impressions dans un article paru dans L’Indépendant des Pyrénées-Orientales, le 21 février 1922 :

[M. Rosengart] nous fit aussitôt dévaler au bas d’un talus à inclinaison invraisemblablement rapide qui se trouve tout proche du Grand Hôtel. Nous plongeâmes comme dans le vide, la voiture évolua dans un cercle des plus restreints, puis remonta le talus, s’agrippant de toutes les aspérités de sa chenille à la neige que les patins dont elle est munie à l’avant avaient commencé par fouler.

Il vante ensuite le propulseur Kergresse :

Nous avons franchi des trous, traversé des ruisseaux, évolué entre les pins de la forêt sans un accident, sans un incident, sans une seconde d’appréhension.

La conclusion de Jean Paul nous rappelle l’impact du conflit mondial sur les évolutions techniques en matière d’automobile et les aspirations à la paix de la population :

Et c’est bien un prodige, en effet, c’est bien une conquête inespérée du cerveau humain que l’invention de ce dispositif ingénieux qui va permettre à nos populations montagnardes de ne plus être jamais bloquées, jamais privées de communication avec le reste de la collectivité civilisée ; qui va permettre, en outre, d’explorer les déserts de sable autant que les champs de neige. Les tanks de la paix répareront le mal fait à l’humanité par les tanks de la guerre.

— Jean Paul, « Impressions d’un chenilliste », L’Indépendant des Pyrénées-Orientales, 21 février 1922

Cliché Agence Meurisse, 1922, Gallica

A suivre : Des élégantes dans la poudreuse

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